London, Simon and Young Scientist Prizes

The Opening Ceremonies of the Conference will be dedicated to the presentation of the London Memorial Prize, the Simon Memorial Prize and IUPAP Young Scientist Prize in Low Temperature Physics.  This arrangement carry on the tradition of presenting the London Prize, the Simon Prize (since LT24) and the Young Scientist Prize (since LT25) at the LT International Conference.

 

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The 2011 Fritz London Memorial Prize

 

Humphrey Maris, Hans Mooij and Gerd Schön have been named winners of the 2011 Fritz London Memorial Prize. The Prize will be awarded during the opening ceremony of the 26th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics to be held in Beijing, China August 10-August 17, 2011.

 

The citation for Humphrey Maris reads: "The Fritz London Memorial Prize is awarded to Humphrey J. Maris in recognition for his original theories and experimental discoveries in liquid helium, concerning phonons, Kapitza resistance, levitation, nucleation, electron bubbles and vortex imaging."

 

Humphrey Maris was born in Ipswich, England in 1939. He graduated from Imperial College, London with a B.Sc. degree in 1960 and a Ph.D. in 1963. His Ph.D. research was an investigation of the propagation of very high frequency sound in solids. From 1963 to 1965 he was a postdoctoral fellow at Case Institute in Cleveland, Ohio. He then moved to Brown University where he has been since. He is currently the Hazard professor of physics and is also a professor of engineering.  He has been a visiting professor at the Ecole Normale in Paris, the University of East Anglia, the University of Stuttgart, the Centro Atomico in Bariloche, Argentina, the University of Tokyo, and the University of Hokkaido. At Brown he has worked on a wide variety of topics including the detection of neutrinos from the sun, studies of sound propagation in liquid helium, magnetic levitation, ultrafast optics, and the development of a new measurement tool now widely used in the semiconductor industry. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, has been awarded the Senior Humboldt Award, a United Kingdom Research Council Fellowship, two Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science Fellowships, the Brown University Technology Partnership Award for Technological Innovation, the Prize for Phonon Physics, (Klemens award), the Philip J. Bray award for Excellence in Teaching in the Physical Sciences at Brown University, and the American Physical Society India-US Professorship Award.

 

The citation for Hans Mooij reads: "The Fritz London Memorial Prize is awarded to Johan E. Mooij in recognition for his experimental contributions to the understanding of nonequilibrium superconductivity, the properties of superconducting films and junction arrays, Josephson flux qubits, and electron quantum transport in these systems.”

 

Hans Mooij is emeritus professor of nanoscience and university professor at Delft University of Technology. He obtained his PhD in 1970 in Delft with far-infrared spectroscopy of anharmonic lattice vibrations. After a short period as process engineer with Shell Petroleum Company he returned to Delft University to start research on electronic transport in micro/nanofabricated metallic structures, mostly in the superconducting state. Microbridges, critical current enhancement by microwave excitation, Berezinskii/Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in superconducting thin films, single electron and single Cooper pair transport, phase transitions and quantum vortices in Josephson junction arrays are among the subjects that he was active in. In the last ten years he focused on quantum information processing with superconducting flux qubits. Hans Mooij is the first director of the Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft. He spent sabbatical periods at Stanford, MIT and NTT Basic Research Laboratories (Japan) and was Loeb lecturer at Harvard. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, honorary doctor of Trondheim University and honorary member of the Royal Netherlands Institute of Engineers. He was recently appointed as a distinguished professor at the Center for Functional Nanostructures in Karlsruhe. He received the Physica Prize, the Royal/Shell Ouevre Prize and the Agilent Technologies Europhysics Prize.

 

The citation for Gerd Schön reads, "The Fritz London Memorial Prize is awarded to Gerd Schön in recognition of his theoretical contributions to the understanding of superconductivity in mesoscopic systems, including work on dissipative quantum mechanics of junctions and the proposal of the superconducting charge qubit."

 

Gerd Schön is Professor of Physics at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany. After studying in Karlsruhe, Dortmund, and Stanford University, Gerd Schön received his PhD in 1976 for his work on non-equilibrium superconductivity, performed under the supervision of Albert Schmid. After periods as postdoc and Heisenberg fellow in Karlsruhe and Jülich and 4 years in the USA at Cornell University, UC Berkeley, and UC Santa Barbara he was appointed in 1988 full professor at the TU Delft in The Netherlands. Since 1991 he has been holding a chair for Theoretical Solid State Physics at the University of Karlsruhe (now Karlsruhe Institute of Technology). In addition, since 1998 he has been group leader at the Institute of Nanotechnology of the KIT. He is a founding member of the DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN). The research interests of Gerd Schön include various aspects of the theory of electron transport in nanostructures and superconductors with particular focus on quantum and single-electron effects, as well as quantum manipulations of solid state devices. Gerd Schön’s professional activities include: 2003-2006 chairman of the division “Low Temperature” and 2009 - present chairman of the Section “Condensed Matter” of the German Physical Society. Gerd Schön received 1989 the Walter Schottky prize of the German Physical Society, 1995 the A.V. Humboldt award of the Academy of Finland, and 2001 the Miller Visiting Professor award of UC Berkeley.

The Fritz London Memorial Prize

The Fritz London Prize was created to recognize scientists who made outstanding contributions to the advances of the field of Low Temperature Physics. It is traditionally awarded in the first session of the International Low Temperature Conference(LT), which is sponsored by the IUPAP (International Union of Pure and Applied Physics) and was first awarded in 1957.  The London Prize was first funded by grants from the A.D. Little Company that made the Collins helium liquefiers. The funding on a regular basis dates back to 1972 when John Bardeen gave his portion of the Nobel Prize to Duke University for an endowment, called "the Fritz London Fund". This was to provide support for the annual Fritz London lecture and for the London Prize. In 1994, a second endowment was created at Duke University from a) the balance of funds remaining from the LT20 Conference in Oregon, remitted by Russell Donnelly, and b) a gift from Horst Meyer. This second endowment is called "Fritz London Prize endowment" and is solely intended for the London Prize. Further gifts to this endowment were made in 2000, 2006 and 2009 by the Organizers of the LT22, LT24 and LT25 Conferences in Helsinki (Finland), Orlando (Florida, USA) and Amsterdam (The Netherlands). Furthermore Oxford Instruments Inc. in Abingdon, UK, made generous gifts in cash for all the London prizes awarded since 1996.

 

The list of previous London Prize winners reads,

1957: N. Kurti (UK)

1960: L.D. Landau (USSR)

1962: J. Bardeen (USA)

1964: D. Schoenberg (UK)

1966: C.G. Gorter (Holland)

1968: W.M. Fairbank (USA)

1970: B.D. Josephson (UK)

1972: A.A. Abrikosov (USSR)

1975: J. Wheatley (USA)

1978: G. Ahlers, W. McMillan, J.M. Rowell (all USA)

1981: J.D. Reppy, A.J. Leggett, I. Rudnick (all USA)

1984: W. Buckel (Germany), O.V. Lounasmaa (Finland), D.J. Thouless (USA)

1987: K.A. Mueller and J.G. Bednorz (Switzerland), J. Kondo (Japan), J. Clarke (USA)

1990: R.C. Dynes (USA), P.C. Hohenberg (USA), A.I. Larkin (USSR)

1993: A. Schmid (Germany), D. Greywall (USA), H. Meyer (USA)

1996: M.H.W. Chan, C. Wieman, E.A Cornell (all USA)

1999: D.F. Brewer (UK), M. Krusius (Finland), W. Ketterle (USA)

2002: R.J. Donnelly (USA), A. Goldman (USA), W. N. Hardy (Canada)

2005: S. Balibar (France), J.C. Séamus Davis (USA), R. Packard (USA)

2008: Yuriy M. Bunkov (Russia and France), Vladimir V. Dmitriev (Russia), and Igor A. Fomin (Russia)  

 

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The 2011 Simon Memorial Prize

 

The 2011 Simon Memorial Prize is awarded to Sergey V. Iordanskii and Nikolai B. Kopnin "For their calculations and predictions of the fundamental forces acting on quantised vortices in superfluids, superconductors and other ordered systems:  The Iordanskii force and the Kopnin force"

A vortex moving in a classical liquid experiences the famous Magnus force which acts between the liquid and the vortex. However, superfluids and superconductors differ from classical fluids and introduce new forces that were first understood by Kopnin and Iordanskii. This physics was later understood to have much wider applicability.

The Iordanskii force arises in both Bose and Fermi superfluids and has a universal form. Its value is fundamental, being determined by the vortex winding number, the density of the normal component and the vortex velocity relative to the normal component. The universality arises from the topological nature, it is the result of the Aharonov-Bohm effect experienced by quasiparticles that are scattered by the vortex. A similar effect occurs in cosmology for matter scattering on spinning cosmic strings.

The Kopnin force appears in BCS systems - superconductors and fermionic superfluids. The Kopnin force is also fundamental. It has the same origin as the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly in relativistic quantum field theories. In the Standard Model of particle physics the anomaly leads to non-conservation of baryonic charge and as a result to an excess of matter over anti-matter in our Universe. In superconductors and fermionic superfluids the same anomaly leads to the apparent non-conservation of momentum, which manifests as the Kopnin force.

The combined Iordanskii and Kopnin forces are also important in many areas of physics. In superconductors, the motion of quantized Abrikosov  vortices is the only significant source of dissipation, making the Iordanskii and Kopnin forces of considerable technological importance and in superfluids, the predictions of Iordanskii and Kopnin have led to the discovery of new phenomena. The Iordanskii and Kopnin forces are essential to the understanding of vortex dynamics in neutron and proton superfluids and in the coloursuperconducting quark matter that may exist in the core of a neutron star.

Biographies of the Simon Memorial Prize Winners

Sergey V Iordanskii

Sergey Iordanskii was born in 1929 inKaliningrad (now Korolev) near Moscow, Russia. He entered the MoscowStateUniversity in 1947 and then moved to the newly established Moscow Institute for Physical Engineering from where he graduated with a master’s degree in Physics in 1953. From 1953 to 1956 he was a Research Fellow at the ArsamasNuclearCenter. In 1956 Sergey Iordanskii was decorated with the Order of Red Banner by the USSR Governement for his work in applied science. In 1956 he joined the Steklov Mathematical Institute in Moscow and in 1958 he gained a PhD in Physics and Mathematics from the Institute for Applied Mathematics for his thesis on non-stationary dynamics of gases. In 1968 he received his second doctoral degree from the Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems for his thesis on the theory of superfluidity. From 1967 till the present time his career has been spent at the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Chernogolovka where he has progressed from Senior Research Fellow to the head of department and Principal Research Fellow. In the period 1989-1994 he was also the head of the theoretical physics department at the Institute for Solid State Physics in Chernogolovka. Sergey Iordanskii is a full Professor at Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and he received the title of Honoured Scientist of the Russian Federation in 2006.

Nikolai B Kopnin

Nikolai Kopnin was born in 1946 inMoscow, Russia. He received his master’s degree in Physics in 1970 from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and his PhD degree in Physics and Mathematics in 1973 from the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow. In the same year he joined the Landau Institute and  remains associated with it to the present time. In 1984 Nikolai Kopnin received his second doctoral degree from the Landau Institute and became the Leading Research Fellow at Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics. During the period 1988 - 1994 he was a Professor in Physics at Moscow State Institute of Radio-technology, Electronics and Automatics. In 2000 Nikolai Kopnin joined the Low Temperature Laboratory at Helsinki University of Technology (now AaltoUniversity) in Finland. Nikolai Kopnin has held many visiting scientist positions including visiting Professorships at CNRS in Grenoble and at Universite Paris-Sud in Orsay, France; at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel; at the University of Chicago and at the Argonne National Laboratory in the USA.

 

The Simon Memorial Prize Award was established in 1958 and commemorates the outstanding contributions to science of Sir Francis Simon. The prize is an international prize with no restrictions on nationality. It is awarded for distinguished work in experimental or theoretical low temperature physics. Further information including a list of the Prize winners can be found at the Low Temperature Group website.

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 IUPAP Young Scientist Prize in Low Temperature Physics

 

The 2011 IUPAP Young Scientist Prize in Low Temperature Physics is awarded to Eunseong Kim, Max Hofheinz and Mika Sillanpää:

 

Eunseong Kim

The citation reads: “For his important contributions to the discovery and further elucidation of unusual phenomena in solid 4He, which has stimulated a new era of investigation of quantum solids.”

 

Eunseong Kim was born in 1971 in the Republic of Korea. He was educated in the local elementary, middle, and high school in Pusan, Korea and enrolled at the Pusan National University in 1990. After the completion of a mandatory military service from 1993 to1996, he returned to the university and obtained a BS degree in Physics in 1998. He spent one year as a MS student at the same university, and then moved to Penn State University, Pennsylvania in 1999 for his Ph. D study. He earned his Ph.D in 2004 for his thesis work focused on the properties of solid 4He and evidence interpreted as the presence of supersolidity. He joined KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology) in 2006 as an Assistant Professor. In 2008, he was awarded the Lee Osheroff Richardson North American Science Prize, from Oxford Instruments for his contributions to the understanding of solid helium.

 

Max Hofheinz

The citation reads: “For his leading role in the generation of Fock states in superconducting quantum circuits and the realization of arbitrary quantum states in superconducting resonators.”

 

Max Hofheinz is born in Bad Mergentheim, Germany in1978. He studied physics at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany, then at Grenoble, France, obtaining a Master's Degree in physics at each. After a earning a PhD on Coulomb blockade in silicon nanowires, defended in Dec. 2006 at the University Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, Max went on to a two-year postdoc position in which he worked on circuit quantum electrodynamics at the university of California Santa-Barbara. He is currently doing a second postdoc in which he is involved with the study of the photonic aspects of dynamical Coulomb blockade at CEA, Saclay, France. He recently was awarded a “Chair of Excellence” at by the Nanosciences Foundation (Grenoble) to develop Josephson Quantum Optics in the THz domain.

 

Mika Sillanpää

The citation reads: “For his original contributions in coherent quantum information transfer and Landau-Zener interferometry in superconducting qubits.”

 

Mika Sillanpää was born in Helsinki Finland in 1976. He received his MS degree at TKK, Finland in 2005 and his Doctor of Technology there in 2006. He was a postdoc at NIST (Boulder, USA) from 2005 to 2007, and a postdoc of the Academy of Finland 2007-2010. He is currently an ERC Fellow and leader of the NEMS Group at the Low Temperature Laboratory of Aalto University. In 2009 he was invited to be a member of the Young Academician Club, Finnish Academy of Science and Letters. Some of his most important work has involved the discovery of Josephson quantum capacitance in a charge cubit, work on Landau-Zener interferometry and quantum state transfer with superconducting cubits, and nanomechanical beam resonators with strong electromechanical coupling.

 

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